October 20, 2014
September 20, 2014
The term “hurricane” is a West Indian word meaning “big wind”. Between 1900 and 2004, fifteen hurricanes have hit South Carolina. Hurricane Hugo made landfall Friday, September 21st, 1989.
Hurricane Hugo was a Cape Verde storm in the North Atlantic Ocean that intensified dramatically. By mid-September it was already classified a Category 5 hurricane on the Saffir-Simpson Scale. As it turned toward the northwest, the eye wall scraped the northeastern tip of Puerto Rico. There was substantial damage in the US Virgin Islands. St. Croix was leveled.
The storm was then downgraded to a Category 2. By Wednesday, it was apparent that Hugo was heading for the South Carolina coast. The hurricane intensified rapidly on Thursday.
Hurricane Hugo made landfall northeast of Charleston near midnight on Friday, September 21st. When it hit South Carolina, it was a Category 4 hurricane with sustained winds in excess of 135 mph. The storm surge was estimated at over 20 feet at Bull’s Bay.
Hugo then moved inland at nearly 30 mph. Hurricane force winds were reported as far inland as York County. Tree and power lines damaged by hurricane force wind gusts were reported as far inland as Charlotte. As the storm lost power, West Virginia and western Pennsylvania felt the remnants of Hugo.
Eighty-two death are associated with Hurricane Hugo, twenty-seven in South Carolina. Damage to the U.S. was estimated at over $7 billion. Thousands of acres were destroyed in the Sumter National and the Francis Marion forests. The Folly Beach, Sullivans Island, Isle of Palms, and McClellanville communities were heavily damaged.
Since Hugo, the coastal population of South Carolina has increased by nearly 150,000 citizens (2006 figure).
Storm surges are the leading potential killer in tropical cyclones along the coast. Inland flooding from the rain is the most underrated killer with the most observed casualties.
Hurricane Hugo: Storm of the Century / Macchio, William
The South Carolina Encyclopedia / Walter Edgar (ed.)
August 10, 2014
Charleston’s maritime history started early, and we are very lucky to have so many maps of the Charleston Harbor. With its settlement in 1670, maps were critical for the safe maneuverings of the various vessels. With almost three and a half centuries of maritime development, the harbor has been used as a trading port, the center of blockade running and a highway to ports all over the Atlantic.
Early on, the English and the French drew numerous maps of our southeastern coastline. Interestingly enough, very few maps were drawn by mapmakers who actually stepped foot here in the New World. They were often copied from maps that had been drawn by explorers and were usually written in a different language than English.
Starting with the newly discovered 1686 “Map of Charles Towne” by John Boyd and the 1671 “Plat of Charles Town” the harbor has changed many times over the centuries. The five channels that merge to form the harbor and the old fortresses that line its banks, like Castle Pinckney, Fort Sumter, Fort Moultrie, Fort Johnson, and batteries Wagner and Marshall, make for interesting details on the numerous maps that have been drawn over time.
July 9, 2014
On May 22, 1856, pro-slavery South Carolina Congressman Preston S. Brooks approached abolitionist Senator Charles Sumner of Massachusetts as Sumner sat at his desk in the nearly empty Senate chambers. Brooks declared ”Mr. Sumner, I have read your speech carefully, and with as much calmness as I could be expected to read such a speech. You have libeled my state, and slandered my relation, who is aged and absent, and I feel it to be my duty to punish you for it.” With that, Brooks began beating Sumner with the heavy gold-headed, gutta-percha walking stick he carried. Over thirty blows were struck. Sumner tried vainly to defend himself but he was trapped by his desk, which was bolted to the floor. Sumner finally managed to wrench the desk free, bleeding profusely he staggered down the aisle as Brooks continued to beat him, even after breaking the cane over Sumner’s head. By this time Sumner collapsed unconscious and witnesses rushed to restrain Brooks and aid Sumner.
What prompted Brooks’ actions? Three days earlier, on May 19, Charles Sumner had delivered a much anticipated speech to a full Senate and packed gallery. “The Crimes Against Kansas” was a blistering attack on the 1854 Kansas-Nebraska Act, which left determination of slave or free status for new territories up to the settlers, popular sovereignty. Kansas had erupted in violence because of the act. Sumner was considered a powerful speaker and ardent anti-slavery advocate. But in his speech, Sumner also assailed the two main supporters of the bill, Stephen A. Douglas of Illinois and Andrew Pickens Butler of South Carolina. Sumner especially heaped scorn on Butler, even mocking his speech impediment. He used sexual imagery in the speech, saying Butler had taken “the Harlot, Slavery” as his mistress. Butler, a respected 59-year-old Senate veteran and proponent for slavery, was suffering from ill health and wasn’t present for Sumner’s speech. The Southern senator, as well as being a fellow South Carolinian, was also Preston Brooks’ cousin. The speech lasted on to the second day, with Sumner continuing to attack Butler and speaking derisively about South Carolina.
Preston Brooks felt that Charles Sumner had dishonored both Andrew Pickens and South Carolina. The Southern code of honor demanded that the insult be answered by pistols on the dueling field. But Brooks also decided that Sumner, by his intemperate language, had demonstrated he was not a gentleman and didn’t merit being treated as an equal. A thrashing with a cane or whip was the proper response to a social inferior. Butler, being too old to thrash Sumner, the duty fell to Brooks.
After the caning, Preston Brooks reported his actions to the police, he was subsequently fined $300. After a House resolution to expel him failed to reach the necessary two-thirds majority, Brooks resigned his House seat. He returned to South Carolina and was promptly reelected. He would die unexpectedly a year later in 1857, at Brown’s Hotel, Washington. Butler also died in 1857.
Charles Sumner didn’t fare as well, it would take over three years for him to regain his health after the attack. He was unable to fully resume his Senate duties until December 1859. Sumner was also reelected and his seat was left empty as a symbol. He would have a distinguished political career, including chairman of the Senate foreign relations committee during the Civil War, dying in 1874.
The incident galvanized the nation and reflected the growing sectionalism of the country. Both men became heroes. Southerners sent Brooks a number of gold-headed canes, including one inscribed “Hit Him Again.” Southern newspapers praised his actions and communities passed resolutions approving his conduct. The North called him “Bully” Brooks, held “indignation meeting” to express their outrage, and considered Sumner a martyr to abolitionism and free speech, with the caning a demonstration of the depravity and brutality of the slave owner. The new Republican Party made good political use of the affair, aiding the party in its rise to power.
June 26, 2014
By the end of World War II, 425,000 German, Italian, and Japanese prisoners of war (POWs) were being held in the United States under the supervision of the Provost Marshal General’s office. The Geneva Convention and War Department directives had established policies for treatment to which United States’ officials observed strict adherence in hopes that American POWs overseas would be treated as humanely.
Until the spring of 1943, the US held only a few thousand Axis POWS, but this changed when the Allies successfully resolved the North African campaign in May, 1943. By September, 115,000 German and Italian POWs were sent to the United States including Rommel’s Afrika Korps, known as the most disciplined soldiers and ardent Nazis.
During WWII, South Carolina maintained twenty camps in seventeen counties, housing between 8-11,000 German (and to a lesser extent, Italian) prisoners of war. Most lived in small camps of about 300 men and cut pulpwood or worked on farms.
This was not the first time South Carolina had housed POWs. During WWI, small contingents of seamen and enemy aliens were confined at Camp Sevier (Greenville), Camp Wadsworth (Spartanburg), and Camp Jackson (Columbia).
American farmers were hit by a labor shortage during WWII. New war industry jobs paid more than farmers could afford to offer, and many young men were away fighting. In South Carolina, POW labor was used to harvest labor-intensive cash crops such as peanuts, cotton, and peaches.
Working conditions were generally good, but not necessarily easy. Farm labor was better than working in the timber industry, as the timber industry was more physically demanding and involved achieving strict production quotas. Regulations stated that employers were to maintain minimum contact with the POWs, but prisoners’ productivity was rewarded with afternoon breaks and substantial meals.
Recreation helped to combat boredom. Soccer fields, gardens, and reading rooms were created by prisoners. Plays, art exhibits and variety shows were put on and some camps constructed theaters for prisoner productions and movies. Public reaction evolved from curiosity about the prisoners to resentment and accusations of “coddling” the prisoners. After the war, it was revealed that providing privileges to the POWS was, in part, an attempt to re-educate and democratize the prisoners in order to combat rising Nazism in the camps, and also, postwar Germany.
West Ashley Camp Controversy
A chimney built by German prisoners of war during World War II has become a thorn in the side for one West Ashley Jewish family. The Pearlstine’s, who have deep roots in Charleston, bought the empty lot 20 years ago as it adjoins their land. Mary Ann Pearlstine Aberman and some of her relatives currently own the property on Colony Drive off Highway 61.
The fireplace, chimney, and a concrete slab are all that remains of a West Ashley POW camp clubhouse built by prisoners. The rest of the camp was torn down after the war, but for a time the clubhouse was used for supper clubs and Boy Scout meetings.
The Abermans wanted the chimney removed when they discovered its origin and received a permit for demolition from the county. When preservationists wanted to save the chimney, the Abermans proposed to give it to the group – and even chip in $1,000 to pay moving costs. The cost to move the chimney proved prohibitive, but by then the property was annexed into the city and the demolition permit void.
City planning officials heard about the prison camp relic and proposed a “landmark overlay zone” to protect the chimney. If City Council approves the landmark designation, the Pearlstines will have to preserve the chimney unless granted special permission to demolish it.
August 14, 2013
We are very excited about Dr. Michael Trinkley of Chicora Foundation doing a program for us Sept. 11th at 6:30. It will be Rice in 18th and 19th Century South Carolina. Dr. Trinkley and Chicora over the years have done numerous and extensive archaeological studies of plantations, cemeteries, and historic sites in South Carolina and the South. So his look at typical rice plantations should be interesting and informative.
August 12, 2013
Rice in 18th and 19 Century South Carolina
Wednesday, September 11, 2013, 6:30-7:30pm
Main Library Auditorium
Join Dr. Michael Trinkley of the Chicora Foundation for a look at typical SC rice plantations and rice cultivations of the 18th and 19th century.
Program is free and open to the public.